- About Startup Genome
- Our Services
- About Our Global Partners
- About Entrepreneurship for Climate
- About Foresight Canada
- About Innovate BC
- The Problem in Cleantech Isn’t Innovation — It’s Scaling
- Global Startup Sub-Sector Analysis
- Global Cleantech Ranking: Top 25 + 10 Runners-Up
- How Building High-Performance and Interconnected Climate Tech Entrepreneurial Communities Will Slow Climate Change
- The Opportunity That Corporations Can't Afford to Miss
- Global Funding & Performance Trends
- Deployment-Led Innovation: An Algorithm for Green Growth
- In Search of the Elusive Political Entrepreneur
- Top Five Ecosystems by Region & Ecosystems to Watch
- Cleantech Top Ecosystem Players
- Cleantech Ecosystem Pages
- Individuals Can’t Solve the Climate Crisis, But Clusters Can
- Collaborating to Accelerate Canadian Cleantech
- Methodology & References
- Acknowledgments & Partners
Methodology & References
The Startup Genome quantitative data infrastructure includes data on over 3 million companies, 280+ ecosystems, and survey data from more than 10,000 startup executives across the globe.
These are the main datasets that make up this data science infrastructure:
- Startup Genome proprietary data:
- Interviews with 100+ experts
- 2017–2021 Startup Ecosystem Survey with more than 10,000 participants per year
- Crunchbase: global dataset on funding, exits, and locations of startups and investors
- Dealroom: global dataset on funding, exits, and locations of startups and investors
- Pitchbook: private capital market data provider
- Local partners (accelerators, incubators, startup hubs, investors):
- list of startups
- list of local exits and funding events
- CB Insights: global dataset on unicorns
Cleantech consists of sustainable solutions in the fields of Energy, Water, Transportation, Agriculture, and Manufacturing that include advanced materials, smart grids, water treatment, efficient energy storage, and distributed energy systems.
Primary Data Sources
- Startup Genome LLC (2017-2021). StartupGenome.com Database
- Dealroom.co BV. (2017-2021). Dealroom.co Database
- Crunchbase (2017-2021). Crunchbase.com Database
- CB Insights (2019-2021). CBInsights.com Database
- Pitchbook (2018-2021), a private capital market data provider Database
Secondary Data Sources
- Forbes 2000
- International IP Index
- Shanghai Rankings
Cleantech Sub-Sectors Ranking Methodology (For Top Ecosystems)
The overall global ecosystem ranking is a weighted average of the following factor scores:
- Performance: 25%
- Funding: 20%
- Startup Experience: 15%
- Knowledge: 10%
- Talent: 5%
- Focus: 25%
The success factors are weighted by the above percentages to establish the overall rank of each ecosystem.
The weights of the factors were determined from research and experience. This method takes into account what is deemed to be of importance in ecosystem mapping and analysis overall and across all ecosystem sizes. We have used our research in the period of 2009-2020 and correlation analysis and modeling work based on linear regression analyses, using factor indexes as independent variables with the performance index as dependent variable.
Adding the actual Performance Index to the ranking formula serves to include the influence of unobserved factors on the performance of an ecosystem.
Captures the actual leading, current, and lagging indicators of ecosystem performance.
- 50% number of exits of $50M+ in time period of July 1, 2016 to June 30, 2021
- 25% number of exits all in time period of July 1, 2016 to June 30, 2021
- 25% log of Output (number of startups in Cleantech) in the time period of July 01, 2016 to June 30, 2021.
Quantifies funding metrics important to the success of early-stage startups.
- 90% log of number of early-stage funding deals in the time period of July 1, 2016 to June 30, 2021
- 10% log of number of Series B funding deals in the time period of July 1, 2016 to June 30, 2021.
- 50% Tech Potential, a measure calculated at the technology class level globally and calculated for each ecosystem based on the technologies it produces
- 20% Complexity of Technology Class, based on a PageRank algorithm
- 30% Global Growth of Technology Class
- 50% Size of Technology Class (log of number of global patents in class)
- 40% Ecosystem Knowledge Space Complexity, a measure of the capacity of the ecosystem for producing patent in complex technology classes, based on a PageRank algorithm3
- 10% Patents (log of number of patents related to the sub-sector)
Assesses the talent Cleantech startups have access to. For this Factor, we analyzed all subjects included in Shanghai Rankings and matched to the relevant Startup Sub-Sectors to calculate the following metrics:
- 30% Average of CNCI score from Shanghai Rankings
- 40% Average of TOP score from Shanghai Rankings
- 30% Average Q1 Score from Shanghai Rankings
- 90% Venture A Funding (log of number of historical Series A funding deals, as a proxy for number of teams that raised funds in the ecosystem in the time period of July 01, 2011 to June 30, 2021.
- 10% Exits (log of number of historical $50M+ exits, as a proxy for number of scaled teams in the ecosystem in the time period of July 01, 2011 to June 30, 2021.
- 50% Number of Employees (log of number of employees in Forbes 2000 companies related to the sub-sector)
- 50% Market Cap (log of sum of market value of Forbes 2000 companies related to the sub-sector)
- % share of startups in the sub-sector.
Key Concepts and Definitions
The ranking is primarily driven by one question: In which ecosystems can early-stage startups have the best chance of building global success?
A technology-enabled business that is less than 10 years old. Steve Blank defines a startup as a “temporary organization in search of a repeatable and scalable business Model. We use this definition to look across sectors and sub-sectors, including software, hardware, health, energy, and others, and we use these parameters for data collection purposes.
A shared pool of resources, generally located within a 60-mile (100-kilometer) radius around a center point in a given region, with a few exceptions based on local realities. Resources typically include policymakers, accelerators, incubators, coworking spaces, educational institutions and funding groups.
Ecosystem Success Factors Model
Our principal analytical tool, this measures different dimensions that support the performance of local startups. We look at multiple factors for our rankings: one measuring actual performance, with other Success Factors associated with performance, each comprising sub-factors and metrics. These factors are highlighted in our Ranking Methodology section, as well as in each rankings section.
- Performance: A combination of leading, lagging, and current indicators that
- capture economic outcomes in a startup ecosystem.
- Funding: The level and growth of early-stage funding, looking at both access and quality.
- Startup Experience: The depth and diversity of the pool of prior startup experience in an ecosystem.
- Talent: Measures the accessibility, quality, and cost of software engineering expertise.
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“Waterloo tops CBRE list of North American emerging tech talent markets," WaterlooEDC, 16 July 2020, https://blog.waterlooedc.ca/waterloo-north-america-emerging-talent-cbre
“Why France,"Young Enterprise Initiative, https://www.yeifrance.com/why-france.html
Riabtsev, Alex. “Startup ecosystem of Paris," Startup Jedi, 5 January 2021, https://startupjedi.vc/content/startup-ecosystem-paris
“An Innovation Powerhouse," Choose Paris Region, https://www.chooseparisregion.org/why-paris-region/An-innovation-powerhouse
“Why is Paris a great place for business and work opportunities?," Paris Attitude, 15 February 2019, https://blog.parisattitude.com/en/paris-great-place-business
Fauvel, Thomas.“Digital and Artificial Intelligence," Choose Paris Region, https://www.chooseparisregion.org/industries/digital-artificial-intelligence
Chevalier, Claude.“FinTech," Choose Paris Region, https://www.chooseparisregion.org/industries/FinTech
“Contentsquare Lands $500M Series E Investment Led by SoftBank Vision Fund 2 To Fuel Rapid Global Expansion and AI-Driven Digital Experience Innovation," Content Square,25 May 2021, https://contentsquare.com/blog/contentsquare-500m-series-e-investment/
“Your Business Hub In Europe," Choose Paris Region, https://www.chooseparisregion.org/why-paris-region/your-business-hub-in-europe
J.Ryan, Kevin.“4 Trends Behind Seattle's Booming Startup Scene," Inc., 4 February 2021, https://www.inc.com/kevin-j-ryan/seattle-surge-cities-covid.html
Soper, Taylor. “Funding to Seattle-area startups hit new Q1 record with $1.6B invested — here were the top deals,"GeekWire, 13 April 2021, https://www.geekwire.com/2021/funding-seattle-area-startups-hit-new-record-q1-1-6b-invested-top-deal...
Colker, Jacob. Etzioni, Oren. “Analysis: Seattle startup ecosystem poised for unprecedented acceleration of company creation," GeekWire, 18 October 2019, https://www.geekwire.com/2019/analysis-seattle-startup-ecosystem-poised-unprecedented-acceleration-c...
“5 Things To Know About Seattle Startup Ecosystem 2019," Huntertech, 19 May 2019, http://huntertechglobal.com/2019/05/19/5-things-know-seattle-startup-ecosystem-2019-tech-companies-i...
“About The Fund," W Fund, http://www.thewfund.com/about/
Terry, Mark. “Top Life Sciences Startups to Watch in 2021," Bio Space,6 January 2021, https://www.biospace.com/article/top-life-sciences-startups-to-watch-in-2021/
Butcher, Mike. “Helsinki rides the Slush wave toward a booming startup future," Tech Crunch, 7 October 2020, https://techcrunch.com/2020/10/06/helsinki-rides-the-slush-wave-toward-a-booming-startup-future/
“Helsinki," Scale Cities, https://scalecities.com/cities/helsinki/
“Metacore secures $179.9M in credit from Supercell for casual games” Tech Investor News, 5 May 2021, https://www.techinvestornews.com/Tech-News/Tech-Bloggers/metacore-secures-179.9m-in-credit-from-supe...
“VIBRANT STARTUP ECOSYSTEM IN AN OPEN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT," Business Finland, https://www.businessfinland.fi/en/do-business-with-finland/startup-in-finland/startup-environment
“Helsinki Startup Ecosystem Report 2021," NewCo Helsinki, 2021, https://newcohelsinki.fi/wp-content/uploads/Helsinki-Startup-Ecosystem-Report-2021.pdf
“Digitalising the healthcare ecosystem in the European Union," Health Europa, 25 June 2020, https://www.healtheuropa.eu/DIGITALISING-THE-HEALTHCARE-ECOSYSTEM-IN-THE-EUROPEAN-UNION/
Fourtane, Susan. “AuroraAI: Finland's National Artificial Intelligence Program," Interesting Engineering, 9 july 2020, https://interestingengineering.com/auroraai-finlands-national-artificial-intelligence-program
“Finland AI Strategy Report," European Commission, https://knowledge4policy.ec.europa.eu/ai-watch/finland-ai-strategy-report_en
“The Global Talent Competitiveness Index 2020," Insead, https://www.insead.edu/sites/default/files/assets/dept/globalindices/docs/GTCI-2020-report.pdf
“Welcome to the Sydney Startup Hub," Sydney Startup Hub, https://sydneystartuphub.com/about
“Sydney Startup Hub celebrates two years of success," Sydney Startup Hub, 25 June 2020, https://sydneystartuphub.com/whats-happening/news/sydney-startup-hub-celebrates-two-years-of-success
“Meet The Fempowered Cohort Of 2020!," Fishburners, https://fishburners.org/startup-blog/meet-the-fempowered-cohort-of-2020/
“Ensuring Sydney's place as a global hub for quantum technology," The University of Sydney, 7 December 2020, https://www.sydney.edu.au/news-opinion/news/2020/12/07/sydney-quantum-academy-ensuring-sydney-as-glo...
Withers, Stephen.”Airwallex plans Sydney engineering hub," iTWire, 6 July 2021, https://itwire.com/strategy/airwallex-plans-sydney-engineering-hub.html
Thomsen, Simon. “Australia’s new biggest VC fund is worth $500 million," Startup Daily, 4 August 2020,https://www.startupdaily.net/2020/08/australias-new-biggest-vc-fund-is-worth-500-million/
Burroughs, Tim. “Australia's Employment Hero gets $35m Series D," AVCJ, 2 March 2021, https://www.avcj.com/avcj/news/3023052/australias-employment-hero-gets-usd35m-series-d
Tore, Ozgur. “Sydney Wins to Host A Tech Event in 2023," FTN News, 17 February 2021, https://ftnnews.com/mice/41245-sydney-wins-to-host-a-tech-event-in-2023
Thomsen, Simon. “Fintech lender Athena banks $90 million series D," Startup Daily, 11 May 2021, https://www.startupdaily.net/2021/05/fintech-lender-athena-banks-90-million-series-d/
“Graphic Design Platform Canva Reaches $15 Billion Valuation,"Lexology, 23 June 2021, https://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=395c7e20-dcda-4527-a27d-d3d1f101d8ad
Riley, Duncan. “Australian enterprise cybersecurity firm Kasada raises $10M," Silicon Angle, 16 June 2020, https://siliconangle.com/2020/06/16/australian-enterprise-cybersecurity-firm-kasada-raises-10m/
Sadler, Denham. “NSW budget underpins a tech-led recovery plan”Innovation Aus,18 November 2020,https://www.innovationaus.com/nsw-budget-underpins-a-tech-led-recovery-plan/
“Affordable rentals set to increase in Sydney," NSW Government News, 24 May 2021, https://www.nsw.gov.au/news/affordable-rentals-set-to-increase-sydney
“Sydney facts," NSW Government, https://invest.nsw.gov.au/why-nsw/sydney-facts
“Talented workforce” NSW Government, https://invest.nsw.gov.au/why-nsw/talented-workforce
Bursztynsky, Jessica. “Uber sells its self-driving unit to Aurora," CNBC News, 7 December 2020,https://www.cnbc.com/2020/12/07/uber-sells-atg-self-driving-unit-to-aurora-.html
“OUR MISSION," Marinus Analytics, https://www.marinusanalytics.com/about
Machosky, Michael. “Pittsburgh-based Astrobotic awarded $199.5 million to deliver NASA rover to the moon," NEXT Pittsburgh, 12 June 2020, https://nextpittsburgh.com/latest-news/pittsburgh-based-astrobotic-awarded-199-5-million-to-deliver-...
Machosky, Micheal.”15 Pittsburgh tech companies to watch in 2021,"NEXT Pittsburgh,4 January 2021, https://nextpittsburgh.com/features/15-pittsburgh-tech-companies-to-watch-in-2021/
“The Pittsburgh Technology Council's Tech 50 Awards honors technology innovation in our region,” Pittsburgh Technology Council, https://www.pghtech.org/events
“Black Tech Nation Ventures," Black Tech Nation, http://btn.vc/
“The Birthplace of AI," Pittsburgh Region, https://pittsburghregion.org/key-industries/artificial-intelligence/
Wiggers, Kyle. “Argo closes $2.6 billion round from VW at a $7.25 billion valuation," Venture Beat, 1 June 2020, https://venturebeat.com/2020/06/01/argo-closes-2-6-billion-round-from-vw-at-a-7-25-billion-valuation...
“Robotics," Pittsburgh Region,https://pittsburghregion.org/key-industries/robotics/
“The State of Climate Tech 2020," Pwc, https://www.pwc.com/gx/en/services/sustainability/assets/pwc-the-state-of-climate-tech-2020.pdf
“Pittsburgh + Energy," Pittsburgh Region, https://pittsburghregion.org/key-industries/energy/
“CALGARY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 2020 HIGHLIGHTS," Calgary Economic Development, 2020, https://calgaryeconomicdevelopment.com/assets/2020-Annual-Report/2020-CED-Highlights.pdf
“Calgary in the New Economy ," Calgary Economic Development, September 2019, https://calgaryeconomicdevelopment.com/assets/Calgary-in-the-New-Economy/Calgary-in-the-New-Economy-...
“OCIF invests in SAIT Digital Transformation (DX) Talent Hub," Calgary Economic Development, 9 September 2020, https://calgaryeconomicdevelopment.com/newsroom/ocif-addresses-tech-talent-challenge-with-investment...
“WELCOME TO INVENTURES 2021,“ Inventures Canada, https://inventurescanada.com/
“The 21st International Conference on Computational Science and its Applications," ICCSA 2021, https://iccsa.org/
“Canadian Digital Oilfeilds Conference 2021," Canadian Digital Oilfeilds 2021, https://www.canada.digital-oilfields-conference.com/index#
“ ABOUT THE GLOBAL ENERGY SHOW," Global Energy Show, https://www.globalenergyshow.com/about/
“Life Sciences Fellowship," University of Calgary, https://innovatecalgary.com/life-sciences-fellowship/
“Medventions Internship ," University of Calgary, https://innovatecalgary.com/medventions/
Pike, Helen. “Calgary life science hub gives companies space to succeed," CBC News, 28 May 2021,https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/calgary/biohubx-calgary-life-science-innovation-hub-startup-biomedica...
“GrinSTEM Fellowship ," University of Calgary, https://innovatecalgary.com/grinstem-fellowship/
“Up to $55 million boost for Alberta businesses to improve energy efficiency," Intrado, 2 November 2020, https://www.globenewswire.com/en/news-release/2020/11/02/2118851/0/en/Up-to-55-million-boost-for-Alb...
“$58 million announced for natural gas innovations worth $155 million," Intrado, 21 July 2020, https://www.globenewswire.com/en/news-release/2020/07/21/2065101/0/en/58-million-announced-for-natur...
Savilow, Madison. “Canada’s Cleantech Future," TheFutureEconomy.ca, 2 December 2020, https://thefutureeconomy.ca/spotlights/spotlight-on-calgarys-edge-on-investment/canadas-cleantech-fu...
“Summit Nanotech announces opening of $ US 10M Series A raise, and signs an LOI with UK-Based CleanTech Lithium to join Summit's multi-client pilot program in Chile," Finanzen.at, 17 May 2021, https://www.finanzen.at/nachrichten/aktien/summit-nanotech-announces-opening-of-$us-10m-series-a-rai...
Marsh, Jane. “A deeper dive into BP and Chevron’s backing of a Canada-based geothermal startup," Renewable Energy World, 3 August 2021, https://www.renewableenergyworld.com/baseload/a-deeper-dive-into-bp-and-chevrons-backing-of-a-canada...
“Digital transformation opportunities set to drive economic boost for Calgary," Tech Crunch, https://techcrunch.com/sponsor/calgary-economic-development/digital-transformation-opportunities-set...
“Symend to Accelerate Global Expansion by Bringing Total Funding to-date to Over US$100 Million Following US$43 Million Series B Extension ," Symend, 9 February 2021, https://symend.com/blog/symend-to-accelerate-global-expansion-by-bringing-total-funding-to-date-to-o...
“Collaborating to win in Canada’s Fintech ecosystem:Accenture 2021 Canadian Fintech report," Accenture, 2021, https://www.accenture.com/_acnmedia/PDF-149/Accenture-Fintech-report-2020.pdf
“Neo Financial Raises $50 Million in Series A Funding and Debt Financing," BusinessWire, 16 December 2020, https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20201216005309/en/Neo-Financial-Raises-50-Million-in-Series-A...
Giurescu, Dan. “The Future of Calgary’s Tech Scene," TheFutureEconomy.ca, 2 December 2020, https://thefutureeconomy.ca/spotlights/spotlight-on-calgarys-edge-on-investment/future-of-calgarys-t...
“Startup Visa (SUV),"Platform Calgary, https://www.platformcalgary.com/programs-and-events/suv/
“The Alberta Foreign Graduate Start-up Visa," Moving2Canada, https://moving2canada.com/alberta-foreign-graduate-start-up-visa/
“Becoming an entrepreneur in Germany," I AM EXPAT, https://www.iamexpat.de/career/entrepreneur-germany
“FRANKFURT START UP FUND," FS Impact Finance, https://www.fs-finance.com/financesolution/frankfurt-start-up-fund/
“[email protected] Innovative Solutions for a Changing Market," Frankfurt School of Finance and Management, https://www.frankfurt-school.de/en/home/about/entrepreneurship
“Welcome to ICGET 2021," ICGET 2021, http://www.icget.org/
“#SafariFRM," Startup Safari Frankfurt, https://frankfurt.startupsafari.com/
“Frankfurt Euro Finance Summit," dfv-Euro Finance Group, https://www.dfv-eurofinance.com/konferenzen/frankfurt-euro-finance-summit-2021/facts-figures
“Deutsche Börse and Commerzbank jointly invest in new digital marketplaces of the future”Deutsche Borse Group, 29 April 2021, https://deutsche-boerse.com/dbg-en/media/press-releases/Deutsche-B-rse-and-Commerzbank-jointly-inves...
Hamilton, Alex.”Deutsche Börse and Commerzbank team up to support DLT firm 360X," Fintech Futures, 4 May 2021, https://www.fintechfutures.com/2021/05/deutsche-borse-and-commerzbank-team-up-to-support-dlt-firm-36...
“FINTECH & CYBERSECURITY," De-Hub,Digital Ecosystems, https://www.de-hub.de/en/the-hubs/frankfurtdarmstadt/#startpage
“CrowdDesk closes Series A for EUR 8.5 million," Frankfurt Valley, 31 May 2021, https://frankfurtvalley.app/2021/05/31/crowddesk-closes-series-a-for-eur-8-5-million/
“Frankfurt-Europe’s Business Hub," Wirtschafts Foerderung Frankfurt, https://frankfurt-business.net/standort-frankfurt/branchenfokus/finanz-versicherungswirtschaft/finte...
“Six startups and accelerators you should know in Darmstadt," Frankfurt Valley, 1 November 2020, https://frankfurtvalley.app/2020/11/01/six-startups-and-accelerators-you-should-know-in-darmstadt/
“European Cybersecurity Summit 2021," Cloud Expo Europe, https://www.cloudexpoeurope.de/ceefsecurity
“Launch of GreenTech Hub powered by TechQuartier and Finance in Motion” Tech Quartier, 27 June 2018, https://techquartier.medium.com/launch-of-greentech-hub-powered-by-techquartier-and-finance-in-motio...
“Green and Sustainable Finance Cluster Germany e.V," Frankfurt School of Finance and Management, https://www.frankfurt-school.de/en/home/international-advisory-services/region/europe/green-sustaina...
“node.energy Secures €775K Financing," FINSMES, 15 December 2017, https://www.finsmes.com/2017/12/node-energy-secures-e775k-financing.html
“Launch of GreenTech Hub” Station FrankfurtRheinMain, 27 June 2018,https://station-frankfurt.de/2018/06/27/launch-of-greentech-hub/
Hak, Andrea. “5 reasons why Germany is the best country for startups," TNW News, 9 July 2020, https://thenextweb.com/news/5-reasons-why-germany-is-the-best-country-for-startups
Menninger, Jörn. Herwarth,von Bittenfeld Paul. and Ferreira,Pedro.“The Complete Frankfurt Startup City Guide," Start Us Magazine, 29 November 2017,https://magazine.startus.cc/complete-frankfurt-startup-city-guide/
Jogner Berlin, Zazkia.”DID YOU KNOW? SRI LANKA IS A MAJOR INNOVATION AND STARTUP HUB," Renaissance Sri Lanka, 28 April 2021, https://www.renasl.org/3776/did-you-know-episode-3-the-rise%E2%80%AFof-innovation-and-start-up-cultu...
“EU supports Sri Lanka’s innovation and startup ecosystem," Colombo Page, 3 March 2020, http://www.colombopage.com/archive_20A/Mar03_1583212171CH.php
“Why Sri Lanka," Invest Sri Lanka,https://www.invest-srilanka.lk/about/WhySriLanka
“Why you should attend," Invest Sri Lanka, https://www.invest-srilanka.lk/about/WhyAttend
“Sri Lanka - Country Commercial Guide,"International Trade Administration Of Sri Lanka, 15 March 2021, https://www.trade.gov/country-commercial-guides/sri-lanka-energy
“Budget Highlights 2021," Deloitte, 17 November 2020, https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/lk/Documents/tax/sl-tax-report-budget-2020-noexp.pdf
Hathurusinghe, Sanuj.“For a Better, Greener Future," Ceylon Today, 8 May 2021, https://ceylontoday.lk/news/for-a-better-greener-future
“ Social Enterprise Ecosystems in South Asian Associations for Regional Cooperation Countries," World Bank Group, May 2017, https://www.innovationpolicyplatform.org/www.innovationpolicyplatform.org/system/files/SAARC%20ecosy...
Paulis, Nadeesha. “Hatch and LAN launches ‘HatchX’ Sri Lanka’s first fintech accelerator," Hatch, 24 April 2020, https://medium.com/hatchworks/hatch-and-lan-launches-hatchx-sri-lanka-s-first-fintech-accelerator-60...
Hamza, Mahadivya. “Sri Lanka fintech start-ups seek funding in virtual pitch," Economy Next, 15 September 2020, https://economynext.com/sri-lanka-fintech-start-ups-seek-funding-in-virtual-pitch-73922/
“Sri Lanka Investment Forum 2021," Invest Sri Lanka, https://www.oav.de/fileadmin/user_upload/2_Termine/1_Externe_Termine/SLIF_International_Brochure.pdf
Fetalvero, Nathaniel. “The startup investment deals that shaped 2020," Tech In Asia, 26 December 2020,https://www.techinasia.com/startup-investment-deals-shaped-2020
“Japan’s largest bank invests over $700 million in Grab," 19 February 2020,https://www.americanbanker.com/payments/articles/japans-largest-bank-invests-over-700-million-in-gra...
“INTRODUCTION TO SINGAPORE’S STARTUP LANDSCAPE," Enterprise Singapore, https://www.bvmw.de/fileadmin/03-Themen/Aussenwirtschaft/ASEAN-Desk/Dateien/Singapur_Delegation/Intr...
“Startup SG Founder," Startup SG, 8 July 2021, https://www.startupsg.gov.sg/programmes/4894/startup-sg-founder
“Singapore Startup Ecosystem – Exclusive Year End Analysis – 2020 – All You Need To Know!," Asia Tech Daily, 4 January 2021, https://www.asiatechdaily.com/singapore-startup-ecosystem-exclusive-year-end-analysis-2020/
“SINGAPORE FINTECH FESTIVAL 8 - 12 NOV 2021," Singapore Fintech Festival, https://www.fintechfestival.sg/
“Thunes gets USD 60 mln funding round from Insight Partners," The Paypers,19 May 2021, https://thepaypers.com/online-payments/thunes-gets-usd-60-mln-funding-round-from-insight-partners--1...#
“COVID-19 Support Package for FinTechs," Monetary Authority Of Singapore, 30 April 2021,https://www.mas.gov.sg/development/fintech/covid-19-support-package-for-fintechs
“Innovation & Enterprise Cluster Fund," National Research Foundation, Prime Minister’s Office, Singapore, 20 February 2021, https://www.nrf.gov.sg/innovation-enterprise
“Innovation," EDB Singapore, 21 June 202, https://www.edb.gov.sg/en/our-industries/innovation.html
“Growing a Vibrant National Innovation System," National Research Foundation, Prime Minister’s Office, Singapore, 20 February 2021, https://www.nrf.gov.sg/rie2025-plan/growing-a-vibrant-national-innovation-system
O’Callaghan, Liam.“Green Tech Farm settles on Singapore," Asia Fruit, 19 November 2020, http://www.fruitnet.com/asiafruit/article/183566/green-tech-farm-settles-on-singapore
Mulia, Khamila. “With new national plan, Singapore leads region’s sustainable green tech innovations," KrASIA, 19 February 2021, https://kr-asia.com/with-new-national-plan-singapore-leads-regions-sustainable-green-tech-innovation...
“How Singapore is cementing its position as Southeast Asia’s fintech hub.," Tech Collective, 3 December 2020, https://techcollectivesea.com/2020/12/03/how-singapore-is-cementing-its-position-as-southeast-asias-...
“Singapore FinTech Report 2021," Fintech Singapore, https://fintechnews.sg/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/Singapore-Fintech-Report-2021-Alibaba-Cloud-Fintec...
“What’s Next For Digital Insurer Singlife After Its Merger With Aviva?," FinTech News Singapore, 28 January 2021, https://fintechnews.sg/47574/insurtech/whats-next-for-digital-insurer-singlife-after-its-merger-with...
“Budget 2021: Building a sustainable Singapore," gov.sg, 17 February 2021, https://www.gov.sg/article/budget-2021-building-a-sustainable-singapore
“About AI Singapore," AI Singapore, https://aisingapore.org/about-us/
Tay, Shirley. “How Singapore is building AI for predictive healthcare," GovInsider, 18 September 2020, https://govinsider.asia/vision/how-singapore-is-building-ai-for-predictive-healthcare-nuhs/
Fetalvero, Nathaniel. “Deep Dive: How PatSnap joined the unicorn club," Tech In Asia, 16 April 2021, https://www.techinasia.com/deep-dive-patsnap-joined-unicorn-club
Basu, Medha. “Woodlands Health Campus to use AI and robotics for patient care," GovInsider, https://govinsider.asia/innovation/woodlands-health-campus-to-use-ai-and-robotics-for-patient-care/
Rohaidi, Nurfilzah. Basu, Medha. “Exclusive: Tan Tock Seng Hospital builds “artificial brain” to manage services," GovInsider, https://govinsider.asia/smart-gov/exclusive-tan-tock-seng-hospital-builds-artificial-brain-to-manage...
“Singapore Startup Ecosystem: An Entrepreneurs' Paradise?," EHL Insights, https://hospitalityinsights.ehl.edu/bridging-valley-death-singapore
“Early Stage Venture Fund," , National Research Foundation, Prime Minister’s Office, Singapore, 20 February 2021, https://www.nrf.gov.sg/funding-grants/early-stage-venture-fund
“Entrepreneur Pass in Singapore," Startup Decisions, https://www.startupdecisions.com.sg/singapore/relocation/entrepass/